History and Components of a Modern Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are critical for some of the largest corporations in the world. Each mainframe has more than one modern processor, RAM ranging from a few megabytes to multiple-score gigabytes, and disk space and other storage beyond anything on a microcomputer. A mainframe can control multiple tasks and serve thousands of users every second without downtime.

The chief difference between mainframes and other computing systems is the level of processing that takes place. Mainframes are also different in terms of data bandwidth, organization, reliability, and control. Big organizations-banking, healthcare, insurance, and telecom companies, etc.-use mainframes for processing critical commercial data.

In this article, we discuss the evolution of mainframe computers and their components.

History of mainframe computers

IBM developed a critical part of mainframe computing, the Automatic Sequenced Controlled Calculator (ASCC) for arithmetic operations, in 1944. From the late 1950s through the 1970s, several companies manufactured mainframes: IBM, Burroughs, RCA, NCR, General Electric, and Sperry Rand, for example. Since then, System / 390 by IBM is the only kind of mainframe in use. It evolved from IBM's System / 360 in 1960.

An Early mainframe occupied a huge space. New technologies have drastically reduced the size and cost of the hardware. A current-generation mainframe can fit in a small closet.

Components of a modern mainframe computer

Like a PC, a mainframe has many components for processing data: operating system, motherboard or main board, processor, controllers, storage devices, and channels.

• Motherboard: The motherboard of a mainframe computer consists of a printed circuit that allows CPU, RAM, and other hardware components to function together through a concept called "Bus architecture". The motherboard has device slots for input cards and cable interfaces for various external devices. Where PC motherboards use 32- or 64-bit buses, mainframes use 128-bit buses. General instructions regarding the internal architecture help the motherboard connect to the other devices and retrieve data using binary computation.

• Processor: A CPU acts as the central processing point in mainframe architecture and includes an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) for performing arithmetic calculations. It also works as a controller for the bus architecture and handles traffic and data requests. The processing power of mainframes is much higher compared to PCs, so that they can handle huge amounts of data.

• Storage devices: Storage devices are for entering, retrieving, storing, and recording data. Many are external devices, such as hard drives, tape drives, and punch card readers, all connected to terminals of the mainframe and controlled by the CPU. Their capacity for data storage can be hundred or even thousands of times that of a PC.

• Communication controllers: Communication controllers allow remote computers to access a mainframe. With the help of networks, LAN or WAN, communication controllers establish connections with various devices, perform data transmission over communication channels, and keep track of users at terminals.

• Channels: The "channels" are the cables used to connect the CPU and the main storage to other parts of the system and make sure that data is moved in a systematic way without losing its integrity.

Modern mainframes have advanced features such as expanded service management capabilities, cross-platform integration facilities, etc. And so are suitable for critical data center operations. The cost of maintaining modern mainframes is much less compared to older models.

A Career As Restaurant Owner Vs Restaurant Manager

There is a big difference between a career as a restaurant owner and a career as a restaurant manager. Restaurant managers sometimes go on to own their own restaurants, restaurant owners often do a great deal of managerial work and both are heavily invested in the success of the restaurant and involved in its daily operations, but the general similarities end there. The specific roles and responsibilities of a restaurant owner vs. a restaurant manager will be explained in further detail below.

A Career as a Restaurant Owner

Restaurant owners are responsible for overseeing the entire operations of a restaurant, even when they hire someone else to manage it. They make an initial investment and either buys the restaurant from someone else or starts his or her own restaurant. Owners must make additional investments down the line when the restaurant needs new equipment and supplies, or when the business has outgrown its location and needs to move or expand, and they will also be responsible for cleaning up the mess if the business fails. The owner has a vested interest in the success of the restaurant, not just because it’s his or her job, but because it’s his or her investment, brainchild and often a dream come true. The owner takes the most financial risk, but he or she also gets the biggest payoff if the restaurant is a success.

They vary in their level of responsibility in the kitchen and on the floor. Some owners hire other people to do everything and trust they will make the right decisions, while others are there every day, interacting with customers and staff and taking on managerial duties. Many of them must work long hours every day of the week as they get their business off the ground, but if it becomes a success, they get the opportunity to sit back and relax a bit.

A Career as a Restaurant Manager

They work closely with restaurant owners to ensure that the business runs smoothly. They also have a vested interest in making sure the restaurant is operating at a profit; in fact, this is their primary concern. The manager has pay increases, bonuses and profit shares to entice him or her to succeed, and the fear of losing his or her job to entice him or her to avoid failure. This career requires skills in budgeting, leadership, communication, analysis and planning, as well as a knowledge and appreciation of the culinary arts and customer service.

Restaurants Kinds and Characteristics

Broadly speaking, restaurants can be categorized into a number of categories:
1. Chain or independent (indy) and franchise restaurants. McDonald's, Union Square Cafe, or KFC
2. Quick service (QSR), sandwich. Burger, chicken, and so on; Convenience store, noodle, pizza
3. Fast casual. Panera Bread, Atlanta Bread Company, Au Bon Pain, and so on
Family. Bob Evans, Perkins, Friendly's, Steak 'n Shake, Waffle House
5. Casual. Applebee's, Hard Rock Caf'e, Chili's, TGI Friday's
6. Fine dining. Charlie Trotter's, Morton's Steakhouse, Flemming's, The Palm, Four Seasons
7. Other. Steakhouses, seafood, ethnic, dinner houses, celebrity, and so on. Of course, some restaurants fall into more than one category. For example, an Italian restaurant could be casual and ethnic. Leading restaurant concepts in terms of sales have been tracked for years by the magazine Restaurants and

The impression that a few huge quick-service chains completely dominate the restaurant business is misleading. Chain restaurants have some advantages and some disadvantages over independent restaurants. The advantages include:

1. Recognition in the marketplace
2. Greater advertising clout
3. Sophisticated systems development
4. Discounted procurement

When franchising, various kinds of assistance are available. Independent restaurants are reliably easy to open. All you need is a few thousand dollars, a knowledge of restaurant operations, and a strong desire to
Succeeded. The advantage for independent restaurateurs is that they can 'do their own thing' in terms of concept development, menus, decor, and so on. Without our habits and taste change drastically, there is plenty of room for independent restaurants in certain locations. Restaurants come and go. Some independent restaurants will grow into small chains, and larger companies will buy out small chains.

Once small chains display growth and popularity, they are likely to be bought out by a larger company or will be able to acquire financing for expansion. A temptation for the beginning restaurateur is to observe large restaurants in big cities and to believe that their success can be duplicated in secondary cities. Reading the restaurant reviews in New York City, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, DC, or San Francisco may give the impression that unusual restaurants can be replicated in Des Moines, Kansas City, or Main Town, USA. Because of demographics, these high-style or ethnic restaurants will not click in small cities and towns.

5. Will go for training from the bottom up and cover all areas of the restaurant's operation Franchising involves the least financial risk in that restaurant format, including building design, menu, and marketing plans, already have been tested in the marketplace. Franchise restaurants are less likely to go belly up than independent restaurants. The reason is that the concept is proven and the operating procedures are established with all (or most) of the kinks worked out. Training is provided, and marketing and management support are available. The increased likelihood of success does not come cheap, however.

There is a franchising fee, a royalty fee, advertising royalty, and requirements of personal personal net worth. For those lacking substantive restaurant experience, franchising may be a way to get into the restaurant business-providing they are prepared to start at the bottom and take a crash training course. Restaurant franchisees are entrepreneurs who prefer to own, operate, develop, and extend an existing business concept through a form of contractual business arrangement called franchising.1 Several franchises have ended up with multiple stores and made the big time. Naturally, most aspiring restaurateurs want to do their own thing-they have a concept in mind and can not wait to go for it.

Here are examples of the costs involved in franchising:

1. A Miami Subs traditional restaurant has a $ 30,000 fee, a royalty of 4.5 percent, and requires at least five years' experience as a multi-unit operator, a personal / business equity of $ 1 million, and a personal / business
Net worth of $ 5 million.

2. Chili's requires a monthly fee based on the restaurant's sales performance (currently a service fee of 4 percent of monthly sales) plus the greater of (a) monthly base rent or (b) percentage rent that is at least 8.5 percent of monthly sales .

3. McDonald's requires $ 200,000 of nonborrowed personal resources and an initial fee of $ 45,000, plus a monthly service fee based on the restaurant's sales performance (about 4 percent) and rent, which is a
Monthly base rent or a percentage of monthly sales. Equipment and preopening costs range from $ 461,000 to $ 788,500.

4. Pizza Factory Express Units (200 to 999 square feet) require a $ 5,000 franchise fee, a royalty of 5 percent, and an advertising fee of 2 percent. Equipment costs range from $ 25,000 to $ 90,000, with miscellaneous costs of $ 3,200 to $ 9,000 and opening inventory of $ 6,000.

5. Earl of Sandwich has options for one unit with a net worth requirement of $ 750,000 and liquidity of $ 300,000; For 5 units, a net worth of $ 1 million and liquidity of $ 500,000 is required; For 10 units, net worth
Of $ 2 million and liquidity of $ 800,000. The franchise fee is $ 25,000 per location, and the royalty is 6 percent.

What do you get for all this money? Franchisors will provide:

1. Help with site selection and a review of any proposed sites
2. Assistance with the design and building preparation
3. Help with preparation for opening
Training of managers and staff
5. Planning and implementation of pre-opening marketing strategies
6. Unit visits and ongoing operating advice

There are hundreds of restaurant franchise concepts, and they are not without risks. The restaurant owned or leased by a franchisee may fail even though it is part of a well-known chain that is highly successful. Franchisers also fail. A case in point is the highly touted Boston Market, which was based in Golden, Colorado. In 1993, when the company's stock was first offered to the public at $ 20 per share, it was eager bought, increasing the price to a high of $ 50 a share. In 1999, after the company declared bankruptcy, the share price sank to 75 cents. The contents of many of its stores were auctioned off at
A fraction of their cost.7 Fortunes were made and lost. One group that did not lose was the investment bankers who put together and sold the stock offering and received a sizable fee for services.

The offering group also did well; They were able to sell their shares while the stocks were high. Quick-service food chains as well-known as Hardee's and Carl's Jr. Have also gone through periods of red ink. Both companies, now under one owner called CKE, experienced periods as long as four years when real incomes, as a company, were negative. (Individual stores, company owned or franchised, however, may have done well during the down periods.) There is no assurance that a franchised chain will prosper.

At one time in the mid-1970s, A & W Restaurants, Inc., of Farmington Hills, Michigan, had 2,400 units. In 1995, the chain numbered a few more than 600. After a buyout that year, the chain expanded by 400 stores. Some of the expansions took place in nontraditional locations, such as kiosks, truck stops, colleges, and convenience stores, where the full-service restaurant experience is not important. A restaurant concept may do well in one region but not in another. The style of operation may be highly compatible with the personality of one operator and not another.

Most franchised operations call for a lot of hard work and long hours, which many people perceive as drudgery. If the franchisee lacks sufficient capital and leases a building or land, there is the risk of paying more for the lease than the business can support. Relations between franchisers and the franchisees are often strained, even in the largest companies. The goals of each usually differ; Franchisers want maximum fees, while franchisees want maximum support in marketing and franchised service such as employee training. At times, franchise chains get involved in litigation with their franchises.

As franchise companies have set up hundreds of franchises across America, some regions are planned: More franchised units were built than the area can support. Current franchise holders complain that adding more franchises serves only to reduce sales of existing stores. Pizza Hut, for example, stopped selling
Franchises except to well-qualified buyers who can take on a number of units. Overseas markets institute a large source of the income of several quick-service chains. As might be expected, McDonald's has been the leader in overseas expansions, with units in 119 countries.

With its roughly 30,000 restaurants serving some 50 million customers daily, about half of the company's profits come from outside the United States. A number of other quick-service chains also have large numbers of franchised units abroad. While the beginning restaurateur quite rightly concentrates on being successful here and now, many bright, ambitious, and energetic restaurateurs think of future possibilities abroad. Once a concept is established, the entrepreneur may sell out to a franchiser or, with a lot of guidance, take the form overseas through the franchise. (It is folly to build or buy in a foreign country without a partner who is financially secure and well versed in the local laws and culture.).

The McDonald's success story in the United States and abroad illustrates the importance of adaptability to local conditions. The company opens units in illegally locations and closes those that do not do well. Abroad, men are tailor to fit local customs. In the Indonesia crisis, for example, french fries that had to be imported were taken off the menu, and rice was substituted. Reading the life stories of big franchise winners may suggest that once a franchise is well established, the way is clear sailing. Thomas Monaghan, founder of Domino Pizza, tells a different story. At one time, the chain had accumulated a debt of $ 500 million. Monaghan, a devout Catholic, said that he changed his life by renouncing his greatest sin, pride, and rededicating his life to '' God, family, and pizza. ''

A meeting with Pope John Paul II had changed his life and his feeling about good and evil as '' personal and abiding. '' Monaghan's case, the rededication worked well. There are 7,096 Domino Pizza outlets worldwide, with sales of about $ 3.78 billion a year. Monaghan sold most of his interest in the company for a reported $ 1 billion and announced that he would use his fortune to further Catholic church causes. In the recent past, most food-service millionaires have been franchisers, yet a large number of would-be restaurateurs, especially those enrolled in university degree courses in hotel and restaurant management, are not very excited about being a quick-service franchisee.

They prefer owning or managing a full-service restaurant. Prospective franchisees should review their food experience and their access to money and decision which franchise would be appropriate for them. If they have little or no food experience, they can consider starting their restaurant career with a less expensive franchise, one that provides start-up training. For those with some experience who want a proven concept, the Friendly's chain, which began franchising in 1999, may be a good choice. The chain has more than 700 units. The restaurants are considered family dining and feature ice cream specialties, sandwiches, soups, and quickservice meals.

Let's emphasize this point again: Work in a restaurant you enjoy and sometimes would like to emulate in your own restaurant. If you have enough experience and money, you can strike out on your own. Better yet, work in a successful restaurant where a partnership or proprietorship may be possible or where the owner is thinking about retiring and, for tax or other reasons, may be willing to take payments over time.
Franchisees are, in effect, entrepreneurs, many of whom create chains within chains.

McDonald's had the highest system-wide sales of a quick-service chain, followed by Burger King. Wendy's, Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, and KFC came next. Subway, as one among hundreds of franchisers, gained total sales of $ 3.9 billion. There is no doubt that 10 years from now, a listing of the companies with the highest sales will be different. Some of the current leaders will experience sales Declines, and some will merge with or be bought out by other companies-some of which may be financial giants not previously engaged in the restaurant business.

Talking Cars From Movies and TV

Surely, at some point in your life, you have owned a car and rented that it would come to life in an instant. There are some iconic cars from movies and TV that make us have car envy and hope that with a push of a button we could be in the Batmobile. Here are a few of the top iconic cars from the movies or TV and their features.

First off, Pixar's film "Cars". This movie follows Lightening McQueen (played by Owen Wilson) while he tries to make it back from the run down town of Radiator Spring in hopes to win the Piston Cup. There are many other characters that we meet during McQueen's journey, Mater the loveable tow-truck (played by Larry the Cable Guy), Sally Carrera (Bonnie Hunt), and former Piston Cup winner Doc Hudson (played by Paul Newman). This race car is a new rookie for the races and can reach extreme high speeds. He has some interesting features that model actual race cars, like having stickers instead of headlights. However, this car talks, has eyes, and has a winning personality.

Next on our list is KITT from Knight Rider. KITT, Knight Industries Three Thousand, is a sporty 1982 Pontiac Trans Am and has an artificial intelligent computer installed that allows it to help Michael Knight (David Hasselhoff) fight crime. KITT (William Daniels) has a special body armor that protects it from just about any type of firearm and can resist extreme heat. The super computer on wheels of course could talk, but not only that, he was fluent in Spanish and French, and even has a variety of different accents. This really was the best car ever for any human crime fighter since it could talk, smell, hear, could examine the area, had an array of weapons, had different modes like silent mode, and of course he could still function as a regular car . Pardon me, an awesome car.

Herbie is a very iconic car which lands it in the next slot on our list. This old school Volkswagon Beetle race car actually in habits the human soul who made him named Herbie. Herbie can function just fine on its own like any normal car: driving itself, reasoning, thinking, knowing the difference between good and evil. Ok, so normal cars do not do that last one, or any of those. But, Herbie does race and help its owners survive different situations and helping good demand over evil.

Some people can be obsessive about a car, but what about a car obsessed with it's owner. That is the case with the car Chrstine. In the movie, Christine was portrayed as a 1958 Plymouth Fury who was obsessed with her owner Arnie (Keith Gordon). Christen takes it upon herself to find those who insult, hurt, or attempt to separate her and her love, Arnie. She can not talk like some of the other cars like KITT of Lightening McQueen, but like Herbie, it's as if her soul is trapped inside the car. And, what a soul it is. Christen will wreak havoc to anyone who does her Arnie wrong, no matter how much it may hurt her. Hell hath no fury like a woman, um, car scorned.